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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEARNING OUTCOMES AMONGST ENGLISH EDUCATION AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN

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DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION

Abstract

The research conducted a comparative analysis of the learning outcomes achieved by English Education and English Language students at the University of Ilorin. The research determined the significant differences in the learning outcomes between these two groups of students and identify potential factors that contribute to such differences. The study employed a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative data were collected through standardized tests and assessments administered to both English Education and English Language students. These assessments covered various aspects of English language proficiency, including reading comprehension, writing skills, vocabulary, and grammar.

In addition to the quantitative measures, qualitative data collected through interviews and focus group discussions with students and faculty members. These qualitative data provided insights into the students’ perceptions of their learning experiences, teaching methodologies, and any challenges they encounter in their respective programs. The data collected was analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques, such as t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA), to determine the significant differences in the learning outcomes between the two groups. The qualitative data thematically analyzed to identify recurring patterns, themes, and perspectives related to the research questions. The findings of this study contribute to the existing body of knowledge on English language education in higher education institutions, specifically within the context of the University of Ilorin. The results provide valuable insights for curriculum development, instructional strategies, and student support services for English Education and English Language programs. By understanding the similarities and differences in the learning outcomes achieved by English Education and English Language students, educators and policymakers can make informed decisions to enhance the quality of English language education in the university and improve overall student performance and satisfaction.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1       Background to the Study

Learning outcomes refer to the ideology of developing a clear idea of what can be achieved at the end of the programme. And the programme can be launched only if its learning outcomes are clearly specified and communicated in writing.  The use of Learning outcomes is at a growth worldwide. Adopting learning outcomes as part of teaching aids has several benefits which cannot be neglected in modern modern-day because of the important role it plays in guiding both the teachers and the students to a conclusive end of learning. According to Biggs and Tang, (2015), Learning outcomes are statements that define the expected knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students should be able to demonstrate at the end of a learning experience. Anderson and Krathwohl, (2016), postulated that “Learning outcomes are the expected measurable and observable results of a learning process”. Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that a student is expected to achieve at the end of a learning experience, such as a course, program, or module. Learning outcomes are a critical component of education and training as they provide a clear and measurable framework for defining the success of the learning experience. They help to ensure that students are clear on what they are expected to learn and provide a roadmap for educators to design effective learning experiences.

Klein-Collins et al., (2015), stated that learning outcomes are statements of what learners are expected to know, understand, and be able to do as a result of their engagement in a learning activity. To Klein-Collins et al., (2015), learning outcomes comprise of a list or write-up of things that learners should know at the end of a program or lecture. The European Commission (2015) defines learning outcomes as the knowledge, skills, and competencies that learners acquire and demonstrate as a result of their engagement in a learning experience. Learning outcomes are typically specific, observable, and measurable statements that describe what learners should know and be able to do at the end of a learning experience, whether it be a course, program, or other learning opportunities. These outcomes provide a clear understanding of what learners are expected to achieve and enable educators and learners to track progress, evaluate effectiveness, and improve learning experiences.

The concept of learning outcomes has been around for many years and has its roots in outcome-based education, which emerged in the United States in the 1980s. Outcome-based education aimed to shift the focus of education from inputs, such as teaching methods and resources, to outputs, such as the desired learning outcomes. This approach was intended to improve the quality of education and make it more relevant to the needs of students and society.

 Learning outcomes are increasingly used in education and training settings worldwide and are often linked to qualifications frameworks and standards. To Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy, (2016), learning outcomes are statements that describe significant and essential learning that learners have achieved and can reliably demonstrate at the end of a course or program. Learning outcomes have since become a standard part of the design and delivery of education and training programs across the world. They are used in a wide range of contexts, from primary and secondary education to higher education and vocational training. The development of learning outcomes involves a process of consultation and collaboration between educators, learners, and stakeholders, and they are continuously reviewed and updated to ensure that they remain relevant and effective. Learning outcomes refer to the knowledge, skills, and abilities that students are expected to acquire as a result of their educational experiences. These outcomes are usually specified in advance by educational institutions or instructors and are used to guide the development of curriculum, assessment, and instruction.

Comparative analysis of learning outcomes involves comparing and evaluating the academic performance of students or learners from different programs, institutions, or settings. The purpose of this analysis is to identify similarities and differences in the learning outcomes achieved by different groups of students and to understand the factors that contribute to these outcomes. To conduct a comparative analysis of learning outcomes, several steps are involved, these steps include defining the learning outcomes, collecting data and analyzing the data.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Learning outcome is a medium used all over the world to discuss diverse issues and opinions for information sharing that provides a better stand of understanding for both learners and teachers. However, there are arguments about whether learning outcome is a good innovation of the 21st century. Some researchers argue that learning outcome has a negative effect on student’s personal life and academic performance while others believe that learning outcome is one of the outstanding developments ever made available to undergraduates of this century.

Comparative analysis of learning outcomes among English education and English language undergraduates is to examine the differences in the academic performance and learning outcomes of two groups of undergraduate students: those majoring in English education and those majoring in the English language. This study aims to identify any significant differences in the learning outcomes, such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills, as well as critical thinking abilities, among these two groups of students. By conducting this analysis, the study intends to provide insights into the effectiveness of the current curricula, teaching methodologies, and instructional materials in both programs. This research seeks to implement evidence-based strategies to enhance the quality of education in English language and English education programs by comparatively analyzing their learning outcomes.

1.3       Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to examine the comparative analysis of learning outcomes among English education and English language students of the University of Ilorin. This was done by examining the following;

  • The types of learning outcomes available for undergraduates at the University of Ilorin.
  • Effect of learning outcomes on undergraduate performance at the University of Ilorin.
  • Advantages/benefits of using learning outcomes amongst undergraduates at the University of Ilorin.
  • Disadvantages/challenges of using learning outcomes amongst undergraduates at the University of Ilorin

1.4       Research Questions

The following questions guided the conduct of the study.

  • What are the types of learning outcomes available for undergraduates at the University of Ilorin?
  • What effect do learning outcomes have on undergraduates of the University of Ilorin?
  • What are the advantages/benefits of using learning outcomes amongst undergraduates at the University of Ilorin?
  • What are the disadvantages/challenges of using learning outcomes amongst undergraduates at the University of Ilorin?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

These are the hypotheses to be tested;

  • Ho1: learning outcomes have varying types.
  • Ho2: learning outcome has a positive effect on undergraduates.
  • Ho3: learning outcomes have no benefits
  • Ho4: learning outcomes have no challenges

    1.6       Significance of the Study

    The research study titled “Comparative Analysis of Learning Outcomes Amongst English Education and English Language Students in the University of Ilorin” holds great significance in the field of education. This study aims to investigate and compare the learning outcomes of students enrolled in English Education and English Language programs at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. The research addresses an important aspect of the educational system by focusing on English Education and English Language programs. The research also examines the learning outcomes among students at the University of Ilorin. The findings will offer a localized perspective on English language education in Nigeria, specifically within the university setting. This localized context is essential as it provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the current educational practices in the Nigerian context and identify areas for improvement.

    Furthermore, the research study contributes to the broader field of comparative education. Comparative analysis allows researchers to identify patterns, similarities, and differences in educational systems, programs, and outcomes across different contexts. By conducting a comparative analysis of learning outcomes between English Education and English Language students, this research expands the existing knowledge base and adds to the global conversation on effective language education. The findings of this study may also have implications beyond the University of Ilorin, serving as a reference for other institutions and researchers interested in understanding the impact of different English language programs. In conclusion, the research study on the comparative analysis of learning outcomes amongst English Education and English Language students in the University of Ilorin holds significant value.

    1.7       Scope and Delimitations of the Study

    The emphasis of this project is to comparatively analyse the effect of learning outcomes amongst English education and English language students at the University of Ilorin.The study is limited to students of English education and English language at the University of Ilorin because of time constraints. The sampling technique that will be used for this study will be Simple random sampling where the population contain a finite number and each and everyone in the population has the chance of being selected in the sample. And also, the population is homogeneous which means the population contains the same types of characteristics that are needed for the study.

    This study is going to explain the effects, types, benefits and challenges of learning outcomes among English education and English language students. The research will as well proffer solutions to the challenges faced by students as a result of learning outcomes. Hence this study will focus on comparatively analyzing learning outcomes in English education and English language students at the University of Ilorin.

    1.8       Operational Definitions of Terms

    Learning outcomes: Learning outcomes describe the measurable skills, abilities, knowledge or values that students should be able to demonstrate as a result of completing a course

    Comparative analysis: comparative analysis refers to the process of comparing items to one another and distinguishing their similarities and differences.

    English education student: English education students refer to students learning English as a second language at a higher institution to get a degree certificate.

    English language student: An English language student is a person who is learning to speak, read, write and understand the English language in return for a degree for it.

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