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The Yagba West Local Government Area in Kogi State’s information and communication technology facilities were the subject of this investigation. The study also looked at how well ICT resources are used in public secondary schools in Kogi State’s Yagba West Local Government Area and whether there are enough of them made available.A descriptive survey method was used as the study’s research strategy. For the investigation, a multi-stage purposive, simple random, and proportionate sampling strategy was employed. In the Yagba West Local Government Area of Kogi State, ten public secondary schools were chosen using a purposive sample technique.

Using a proportionate selection technique, the 100 responders were divided equally among the chosen secondary school’s student body. A questionnaire designed by the researcher served as the study’s instrument. Two specialists in the Department of Educational Management validated the instrument, which was then analyzed using Spearman Brown rank order and put through the spilt half method reliability test. Three theories were examined with a significance threshold of 0.05. Chi-square (χ2) was used to test the proposed hypotheses. Every theory was disproved.

The findings showed that there was no discernible difference in the availability of ICT facilities in public secondary schools in Yagba West Local Government Area based on class or gender, nor was there a significant difference in the utilization of ICT facilities in Yagba West Local Government Area, Kogi State, concerning the availability of ICT facilities in public secondary schools in Yagba West LGA.



1.1       Background of the Study

The development of information and communication technology, or ICT, has made it possible to reshape the world. ICT is currently the rage in international socioeconomic affairs. It is now so crucial that all nations, organizations, and establishments—regardless of their status—strive to recognize and accept it. The modern world is knowledge-based, with the information era dominating almost every aspect of life. It is impossible to dispute ICT’s importance in education or the wider world. The usage of fax machines, telephones, and computer communication networks via the Internet facilitates modern business. Modern e-government, e-banking, e-medicine, e-commerce, and e-education are all products of this progress (Brakel & Chisenga, 2000).   In all spheres of human endeavor, computers, the internet, and other telecommunication technology are being used, according to Brandele (2006), who called ICT a revolution. Thus, it may be claimed that ICT is concerned with easily exchanging and gaining access to data. ICT is thought of as the global superhighway that people use to share and send information. ICT, according to Jimoh (2007), is the management and processing of information for use through electronic and communication devices like computers, cameras, and phones, including texts, photos, graphs, and directions. According to Ofodu (2007), ICT is viewed as electronic or computerized tools that are aided by interactive and human resources and may be utilized for both personal and a variety of educational and learning purposes. ICT, which stands for information and communication technology, can thus be understood as the process of exchanging information among various electronic devices. Digital tools used for information storage and retrieval are known as information and communication technologies, or ICTs. Great progress has been made since the advent of ICT, which can be attributed in part to the potential to create a synergistic relationship between technology innovation and human values (Al-Ansari, 2006). ICT has developed at a rapid pace since the middle of the 20th century, and its convergence and pervasiveness have contributed significantly to globalization and development. Every aspect of human behavior is significantly impacted by information and communication technology (Brakel and Chisenga, 2003).

The abacus is one of the modest tools from which the history of ICT emerged. It is believed that the abacus was created some 3000 years prior to the time of Christ. This antiquated approach to mathematics was progressively being replaced by early calculators; in 1624, Wilhelm Schickard inaugurated a new era in mathematics with the construction of the first four-function calculator clock at the University of Heidelberg. In subsequent years, mechanical calculators were released. Charles Babbage created the first general-purpose computer sometime in 1833. George and Edvard Scheutz constructed a workable model in 1855 using Babbage’s original blueprints. Konrad Zuse creates the Z1, the first electronic calculator, in 1931. The Complex Number Calculator was tested and then shown at Bell Laboratories in 1940. According to Perry (2009), this is believed to have been the first digital computer—one that runs on pulse waves as opposed to analog waves.

The first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was released by the Intel Corporation in 1971, rapidly leading to the computers we use today. IBM invented the modern PC, which was first commercially available in 1981. The Macintosh, Apple’s PC substitute, is released in 1984. In 1991, Tim Lee develops the World Wide Web, and the first web server is created by CERN. The introduction of the Pentium chip into PCs in 1993 marked the demise of the 486. ICT, which was once a challenging issue but is now a necessary component of all industries, has gained acceptance since it offers enormous advantages to companies that, if disregarded, would suffer greatly in the cutthroat marketplace.Ten years ago, email was underutilized because to its cost-effectiveness and time-saving qualities, but these days, most organizations become anxious if their Internet connection goes down. The conventional typewriter mechanism has been supplanted by computers, which are more forgiving when mistakes are made. Because digital documents only take up the area of a PC rather than multiple cabinets, filing space has been decreased. ICT has been ingrained in today’s sectors thanks to these advantages and others (Perry, 2009).

ICTs are becoming more and more significant in how societies and companies create, acquire, accept, and use information (Aribisala, 2006). Nonetheless, because of their capacity to promote knowledge transmission and acquisition, they are being hailed as the instruments of the post-industrial period and the cornerstones of the knowledge economy. Rapid teleological, social, political, and economic change brought about by ICT use has resulted in a network society centered around ICT (Yusuf, 2005). According to the author, ICT is a crucial component of educational administration because when it is used, institutions become more productive and efficient, which leads to the development of a range of tools that can improve and support instructors’ pedagogical activities. Olorunsola (2007) emphasized the importance of ICT use in schools and stated that ICT has satisfied educational requirements and demands, changing both the potential processes and the needs of education. Communications can be sent via telex, email, or phone calls—especially from a mobile device. ICT has exploded in nearly every industry, and education is no exception. It is extensively employed as a teaching and learning tool and is utilized to optimize educational potential. For instance, in the context of distance learning, information and communication technology (ICT) has facilitated learning and increased the opportunity for interaction between students and instructors. The level of interaction that takes place between instructors, course material, and distance learners is one of the elements influencing the degree to which distance learners are satisfied with distance education (the interactive learning triangle of D.E.). The chances and diversity of training on ICT usage must be prioritized since it is believed to be helpful. According to Balogun (2002), Babajide&Bolaji (2003), Bryers (2004), Bandele (2006), and Ofodu (2007), among the many ICT tools used in the teaching-learning process in schools are radio, television, computers, optical fibers, fax machines, CD-Rom, Internet, electronic notice boards, slides, digital multimedia, video/VCD machines, and so forth. ICT facilities can be used in a variety of ways, according to Ajayi (2008). These include computer-based operation/network, systematized feedback systems, audio and video conferencing, internet/global websites, and computer-assisted training. It is imperative to emphasize that the efficient utilisation of diverse ICT pedagogies in education is contingent upon the accessibility of these resources and the proficiency of educators in their application.

The way the world functions and communicates has changed significantly as a result of the rapid advancements in ICT and e-learning in recent years. This has consequently affected the content and delivery of educational services, thereby affecting educational needs, and putting more and more pressure on decision-makers to purchase new technologies. ICTs are evolving at the same time, giving decision-makers a wider range of ICT/e-learning options to select from when incorporating ICT into the classroom. When faced with this circumstance, officials in many nations believed that all that was needed to prepare students for the demands of the twenty-first century was to provide schools with computers and qualified teachers to use them. However, we are aware that merely giving students access to ICT won’t significantly improve the educational system. ICT must be used with a broad understanding of the goals of education in order to emphasize its full potential within the educational system. Policymakers and decision-makers must create suitable policies based on their unique circumstances and learning objectives. Their concentration lies in the effective incorporation of ICTs, such television, radio, and DVD, into the processes of teaching and learning (UNESCO, 2011).

According to studies, ICT gives schools the chance to interact with one another via chat rooms, mailing lists, email, and other means. It also makes complex computations and more comprehensive, up-to-date information faster and simpler to retrieve. Moreover, it gives researchers a consistent channel for sharing research results and discoveries (Yusuf & Onasanya, 2004). One aspect of ICT-based learning is creating context software that is relevant to the country for use in schools. The creation of the ICT infrastructure began with the national telecommunications policy. The Nigeria National Policy for Information Technology (IT) was approved by the Federal Government in 2002. The National Technology Development Agencies (NITDA) were then established, with the responsibility of putting the policy into action (Ajayi, 2002).

1.2       Statement of the Problem

How to improve or mitigate the deteriorating factor in student learning results is the main challenge facing Nigeria’s educational system. Even though instructors claimed to be aware of the advantages of using ICT in the classroom, there was a lack of control over the teaching and learning processes in secondary schools in Nigeria (Okoro, 2008; Olulube&Ubogu, 2009; Adeyemo, 2010; Ugwoke, 2011). Students’ critical thinking abilities in self-directed learning, cooperation, collaboration, and effective communication may be hampered by teachers’ failure to employ ICT tools in the classroom.

Empirically, in their study titled “Issues in Teaching Using ICT,” (Dawes, 2001; Becta, 2004). The findings suggest that a lack of confidence is a barrier preventing educators from utilizing ICTs in the classroom. The majority of teachers had a lack of confidence since they were unsure of themselves and afraid to use ICTs in the classroom. Beggs (2000) conducted a study on the factors that influence and hinder the use of instructional technology. The study’s conclusions showed that instructors’ lack of confidence in their ability to employ ICT resources in the classroom was a result of their fear of failing. In contrast, Balanskat, Blamire, and Kefala (2006) conducted a review of studies regarding the influence of ICT in classrooms. According to the survey, many teachers who lack ICT proficiency are afraid to use it in front of a class of kids who might know more than they do.

According to (Becta 2004; Newhouse 2002; Pelgrum 2001 and Al-Oteaw 2002) in their study on barriers to the Integration of ICT in Education, teachers’ skill in integrating ICT into pedagogical practice is another barrier that is directly tied to their confidence. The authors found that many teachers were unenthusiastic about the modifications and integration of supplemental learning associated with introducing computers into their teaching practices, and that many lacked the expertise and skills to handle computers and other technology. Other obstacles include a lack of time, ineffective training, inadequate technical assistance, unfavorable attitudes and aversion to change, as well as inconsistent electricity supply, unreliable internet connectivity, poor maintenance of ICT facilities, and a lack of accessibility.

This study evaluated the level of teachers’ and students’ use of ICT in teaching and learning processes in order to improve students’ abilities and potentials towards qualitative learning achievement in secondary schools. This is because the availability and utilization of ICT is a factor that enhances teaching and learning processes worldwide. The present study aims to investigate the challenges related to the provision of information and communication technology (ICT) facilities in public secondary schools located in Yagba West, Kogi State. Specifically, the research will uncover the extent of ICT availability, utilization, and usage in these schools.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State. Specifically, this study strives to find out:

  • the level of availability of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State;
  • the level of utilization of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State;
  • the relationship between the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State.

1.4       Research Questions          

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  • What is the level of availability of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State?
  • What is the level of utilization of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State?
  • What is the relationship between the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State?

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                                                 

The following research hypotheses were formulated in the study:

  • H01: There is no significant relationship in the availability of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State based on class.                                                               
  • H02: There is no relationship difference in utilization of ICT facilities in Public Secondary Schools in Yagba West, Kogi State based on gender.

1.6       Significance of the Study

Future scholars as well as curriculum writers and planners, secondary school instructors, administrators, and students would find this research effort to be quite valuable. The study’s conclusions will help secondary school administrators understand the current condition of ICT resources available to teachers for use in instructional development, including whether or not they are enough. The results of this study will have an impact on secondary school teachers, encouraging them to pursue professional development by using ICT-assisted strategy training. Students in Kogi State’s public secondary schools will greatly benefit from the study’s findings as they will start utilizing technology in the classroom.

Finally, by expanding the body of knowledge already available in this field, the findings will be helpful to researchers. As a result, by conducting this study again in a different environment, researchers can rely on the data acquired during this research project.

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                                   

The goal of the study was to find out how ICT resources were used and available in Kogi State’s Yagba West L.G.A Public Secondary Schools. This study focused on the availability and use of ICT resources in Kogi State’s public secondary schools. These resources include devices that store, process, transmit, convert, duplicate, or receive electronic information. The utilization of ICT resources and whether or not teachers employed them for instructional growth were the specific foci of this study. Ten pupils from Kogi State’s Public Secondary School Yagba West make up the study’s population. Out of all the secondary schools in Yagba West L.G.A., ten public schools would be chosen at random using a sampling technique. The entire school would be used to create the sample. The respondents’ answers to the “Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology Facilities Questionnaire (AUICTFQ)” would be gathered, and the mean, standard deviation, and t-test would be utilized to assess the results.

1.8       Limitations of the Study

There are a number of potential limitations to the study “Availability and Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) Facilities in Yagba West Public Secondary Schools, Kogi State” that could affect the results and recommendations. The following are a few potential restrictions:

Sample Size and Representativeness: The results of the study may not be as applicable to other schools in Yagba West or elsewhere if the sample size was restricted for time, money, or other reasons. The results may not have wider significance if the chosen schools do not fairly represent all public secondary schools in the area.

Data Collection Method: Response bias may be introduced if instructors, students, or school administrators are asked to self-report data. Individuals may give responses that are socially acceptable, which could cause errors in the information on the availability and use of ICT facilities. Furthermore, because the study’s methodology may not have taken into consideration obscure or less obvious patterns of use, it may not have fully captured the scope of ICT use.

Technological Infrastructure: The technology infrastructure in the chosen schools may have an impact on the study’s conclusions. There may be differences in the stated use levels between schools based on which has better or more sophisticated ICT facilities than others. Furthermore, the study does not address the issues brought on by poor infrastructure, which could have an impact on how well ICT facilities are used.

Teacher Competence: It’s possible that the study did not fully evaluate the instructors’ proficiency using ICT tools. Utilization rates can be greatly impacted by instructors’ differing levels of skill in incorporating technology into their teaching techniques, even in cases when the schools have access to these tools.

Timeframe: If the study’s timeline is too brief to include long-term trends or seasonal fluctuations in ICT facility availability and consumption, it may provide a restriction. It might also overlook modifications made either before or after the study period.

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as used in this study:

  • Utilization: In order to enhance the teaching and learning processes in Kogi State Secondary Schools, this refers to the effective and efficient use of networked devices like as computers, online communication technologies, projectors, scanners, printers, etc.
  • Availability: In Yagba West Kogi state’s public secondary schools, this refers to the attribute that can be used or earned in order to fulfill the goal and objective of teaching and learning.
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT): This is the interconnectivity of technologies or the interconnection of devices, which is utilized to enhance the processes of teaching and learning.
  • Public Secondary Schools: The government owns, operates, and maintains control over certain secondary schools.

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